The Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant to States Program guidance defines the significance of this goal as follows:
Advantages of breastfeeding are indisputable. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends all infants (including premature and sick newborns) exclusively breastfeed for about six months as human milk supports optimal growth and development by providing all required nutrients during that time. Breastfeeding strengthens the immune system, improves normal immune response to certain vaccines, offers possible protection from allergies, and reduces probability of SIDS. Research demonstrates breastfed children may be less likely to develop juvenile diabetes; and may have a lower risk of developing childhood obesity, and asthma; and tend to have fewer dental cavities throughout life. The bond of a nursing mother and child is stronger than any other human contact. A woman's ability to meet her childs nutritional needs improves confidence and bonding with the baby and reduces feelings of anxiety and postnatal depression. Increased release of oxytocin while breastfeeding, leads to a reduction in post-partum hemorrhage and quicker return to a normal sized uterus over time, mothers who breastfeed may be less likely to develop breast, uterine and ovarian cancer and have a reduced risk of developing osteoporosis.
NPM 4 Tools
- Evidence Brief (National Center for Education in MCH (NCEMCH) at Georgetown University).
- Environmental Scan (Women's and Children's Health Policy Center (WCHPC) at Johns Hopkins University). This environmental scan identifies compilations of strategies to advance NPM 4. Read more about environmental scans.
Summary of the Evidence
The following trends emerged from analysis of peer- reviewed evidence. While findings might not completely align with your ESM, they can serve as ideas to expand your ESM in the future.
- Lactation consultant interventions and home visits provided by professionals (other than lactation consultants or peer counselors) appear to be effective for increasing both breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity at 6 months.
- Peer counselor interventions appear to be effective and are more likely to influence initiation than exclusivity at 6 months.
- There is less clear evidence to support the WIC food package change, group education, or hospital policies.
Access the published evidence.
- There is emerging evidence that an intensive, hospital-based quality improvement and technical assistance intervention to improve compliance with the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding program appears to be effective through the following: skin-to-skin care after cesarean delivery was significantly associated with increased breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity in all races; rooming in was significantly associated with increased exclusive breastfeeding in African American infants only. Read the evidence.
Evidence Analysis Reports
- NPM 4 Breastfeeding: Evidence Review Brief (WCHPC). A three-page summary of report methodologies, results, key findings, and implications.
- NPM 4: Breastfeeding: Evidence Review Full Report (WCHPC). A critical analysis and synthesis of the effectiveness of strategies that might be applied to address NPM 4 to serve as the foundation for accountability across all states and jurisdictions. The evidence review uses a structured approach to evaluate the available empirical evidence and to draw conclusions for MCH programs based on the best available evidence. Read about the evidence analysis report methodology | You can also access the full set of Evidence Analysis Reports.
You can access strategies from AMCHP’s Innovation Station that have shown promise in advancing your NPM below. While these strategies may not completely align with your current activities, they can be used to help guide further development and measurement of your ESM.
|Practice Name||Primary Interest||State||Level of Evidence|
|Super Babies Program||Birth Defects||MN||Emerging|
|Every Child Succeeds||Child Health||OH||Best|
|Healthy Women, Health Futures||Women's Health||OK||Promising|
|Communities Supporting Breastfeeding||Health Promotion||KS||Emerging|
|First 5 California Kit for New Parents||Family Involvement||CA||Promising|
|Early Intervention Partnerships Program||Health Screening||MA||Emerging|
|Touching Hearts and Minds||Infant Health||MA||Emerging|
|Partners in Pregnancy||Infant Health||VA||Promising|
|Welcome Family||Health Promotion||MA||Promising|
|Perinatal Awareness for Successful Outcomes||Perinatal Health||SC||Promising|
|Baby Steps to Breastfeeding Success||Quality Assurance||AZ||Emerging|
|Prenatal Plus Program||Service Coordination||CO||Promising|
Domain and National Performance Measure: A. Percent of infants who are ever breastfed and B. Percent of infants breastfed exclusively through 6 months
|Strategy [Source]||Evidence-based/-informed Strategy Measure (ESM)|
|Maintain a 24-hour breastfeeding hotline staffed by a bilingual certified lactation consultant ||# of calls annually to state-run hotline|
|Deliver training and support for home visitors [3,4]||Increase knowledge of best practices among home visitors as assessed at annual cross-model training|
|Offer technical assistance and education to employers using the Business Case for Breastfeeding ||# of employers who receive technical assistance and education about best breastfeeding practices|
|Continue to strengthen hospital efforts in supporting mothers/babies through comprehensive breastfeeding policies [3,4]||# of hospitals receiving technical assistance in comprehensive breastfeeding policies|
 Women’s and Children’s Health Policy Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Environmental Scans.
 Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs & Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Taking Action with Evidence: Implementation Roadmap Webinars.
Source: Sample Strategies and Evidence-based/informed Strategy Measures (ESMs) (WCHPC). A list of sample strategies and ESMs for each of the 15 NPMs. Sources are provided at the end of the document.
Related ESMs. Access ESMs being implemented by other states/jurisdictions that may serve as models for future work with NPM 4.
- NPM 4 Transformation Tools (MCH Navigator and National MCH Workforce Development Center). Learning resources, implementation strategies, and links to the evidence base for the competencies needed to carry out NPM 4 activities.
- Taking Action with Evidence Implementation Roadmap (Association of MCH Programs (AMCHP) and WCHPC). Archived webinars and additional learning and implementation resources.
- Historical Resources from the MCH Digital Library (NCEMCH). This bibliography is automatically generated to pull resources from MCHLine, the MCH Library's online catalog of seminal resources, in support of NPM 4. Coming soon.
- National Action Partnership to Promote Safe Sleep (NAPPSS): An MCHB-funded technical assistance resource center, this project supports NPM 4 and 5 topic areas.
- Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health (DRC): A project of the Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative, the DRC is a national data resource providing easy access to children’s health data on a variety of important topics, including the health and well-being of children and access to quality care.