The Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant to States Program guidance defines the significance of this goal as follows:
Bullying, particularly among school-age children, is a major public health problem. Current estimates suggest nearly 30% of American adolescents reported at least moderate bullying experiences as the bully, the victim, or both. Specifically, of a nationally representative sample of adolescents, 13% reported being a bully, 11% reported being a victim of bullying, and 6% reported being both a bully and a victim. Studies indicate bullying experiences are associated with a number of behavioral, emotional, and physical adjustment problems. Adolescents who bully others tend to exhibit other defiant and delinquent behaviors, have poor school performance, be more likely to drop-out of school, and are more likely to bring weapons to school. Victims of bullying tend to report feelings of depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and isolation; poor school performance; suicidal ideation; and suicide attempts. Evidence further suggests that people who are the victims of bullying and who also perpetrate bullying (i.e., bully-victims) may exhibit the poorest functioning, in comparison with either victims or bullies. Emotional and behavioral problems experienced by victims, bullies, and bully-victims may continue into adulthood and produce long-term negative outcomes, including low self-esteem and self-worth, depression, antisocial behavior, vandalism, drug use and abuse, criminal behavior, gang membership, and suicidal ideation.
NPM 9 Tools
- Introductory Resources
- Evidence Brief (National Center for Education in MCH (NCEMCH) at Georgetown University).
- Environmental Scan (Women's and Children's Health Policy Center (WCHPC) at Johns Hopkins University). This environmental scan identifies compilations of strategies to advance NPM 9. Read more about environmental scans.
- Evidence Analysis Report
- NPM 9 Bullying: Evidence Review Brief (WCHPC). A three-page summary of report methodologies, results, key findings, and implications.
- NPM 9 Bullying: Evidence Review Full Report (WCHPC). A critical analysis and synthesis of the effectiveness of strategies that might be applied to address NPM 9 to serve as the foundation for accountability across all states and jurisdictions. The evidence review uses a structured approach to evaluate the available empirical evidence and to draw conclusions for MCH programs based on the best available evidence. Read about the evidence analysis report methodology | You can also access the full set of Evidence Analysis Reports.
- Implementation Strategies
- Sample Strategies and Evidence-based/informed Strategy Measures (ESMs) (WCHPC). A list of sample strategies and ESMs for each of the 15 NPMs. Sources are provided at the end of the document.
- Assessing Prevention Capacity & Implementing Change: An Evidence-informed and Evidenced-based Bullying Prevention Capacity Assessment and Change Package. This document presents two tools: the Bullying Prevention Capacity Assessment and the Change Package. The assessment was created to help state health departments (SHDs) and others working to prevent bullying to assess where their efforts are in relation to best practices in bullying prevention and to help guide the implementation of effective bullying prevention activities and programs. The change package examines evidence-informed and evidence-based drivers that build organizational strength to effect change and strategies that support prevention efforts. An appendix presents a review of the evidence on bullying prevention.
- Additional Learning
- NPM 9 Transformation Tools (MCH Navigator and National MCH Workforce Development Center). Learning resources, implementation strategies, and links to the evidence base for the competencies needed to carry out NPM 9 activities.
- Taking Action with Evidence Implementation Roadmap (Association of MCH Programs (AMCHP) and WCHPC). Archived webinars and additional learning and implementation resources.
- Historical Resources from the MCH Digital Library (NCEMCH). This bibliography is automatically generated to pull resources from MCHLine, the MCH Library's online catalog of seminal resources, in support of NPM 9. Coming soon.
- External Resources
- Children's Safety Network: An MCHB-funded technical assistance resource center, this project supports NPM 9 topic areas.
- Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health (DRC): A project of the Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative, the DRC is a national data resource providing easy access to children’s health data on a variety of important topics, including the health and well-being of children and access to quality care.
- StopBullying.gov: A federal repository of trainings, state laws and policies, information for schools, and guidelines for children and adolescents on bullying, cyberbullying, and prevention strategies.