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Strengthening the evidence base for maternal and child health programs

New: MCH Best strategies database for sample ESMs

Evidence Tools
MCH Best. NPM 1: Well-Woman Visit

MCH Best Logo well-woman visit

Strategy. Patient Navigation

Approach. Adopt protocols where clinic staff (e.g., WIC) assist with scheduling preventive visits.

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Overview. Culturally and linguistically appropriate interventions may improve Pap testing levels among women in North America.”1

Evidence. Moderate. Interventions targeting the patient/consumer such as patient navigation appear to be effective. Access the peer-reviewed evidence through the MCH Digital Library. (Read more about understanding evidence ratings).

Target Audience. Patient/Consumer.

Outcome. Percent of women with a past year preventive visit. For detailed outcomes related to each study supporting this strategy, click on the peer-reviewed evidence link above and read the "Intervention Results" for each study.

Examples from the Field. There are currently 0 ESMs across all states/jurisdictions that use this strategy directly or intervention components that align with this strategy. Access descriptions of these ESMs through the MCH Digital Library. You can use these ESMs to see how other Title V agencies are addressing the NPM.

Sample ESMs. Using the approach “Adopt protocols where clinic staff (e.g., WIC) assist with scheduling preventive visits,” here are sample ESMs you can use as a model for your own measures using the Results-Based Accountability framewor (for suggestions on how to develop programs to support this strategy, see The Role of Title V in Adapting Strategies)k:

Quadrant 1:
Measuring Quantity of Effort
("What/how much did we do?")

  • Number of WIC clients who receives assistance with scheduling preventive visit appointments from WIC staff.

Quadrant 2:
Measuring Quality of Effort
("How well did we do it?")

  • Percent of WIC clients who receives assistance with scheduling preventive visit appointments from WIC staff.

Quadrant 3:
Measuring Quantity of Effect
("Is anyone better off?")

  • Number of WIC clients who receive assistance with scheduling preventive visit appointments from WIC staff who attend the appointment.

Quadrant 4:
Measuring Quality of Effect
("How are they better off?")

  • Percent of WIC clients who receive assistance with scheduling preventive visit appointments from WIC staff who attend the appointment.

Note. ESMs become stronger as they move from measuring quantity to measuring quality (moving from Quadrants 1 and 3, respectively, to Quadrants 2 and 4) and from measuring effort to measuring effect (moving from Quadrants 1 and 2, respectively, to Quadrants 3 and 4).

Learn More. Read how to create stronger ESMs and how to measure ESM impact more meaningfully through Results-Based Accountability.


Reference:

1McKenney, K. M., Martinez, N. G., & Yee, L. M. (2018). Patient navigation across the spectrum of women’s health care in the United States. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology218(3), 280-286.

This project is supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) under grant number U02MC31613, MCH Advanced Education Policy, $3.5 M. This information or content and conclusions are those of the author and should not be construed as the official position or policy of, nor should any endorsements be inferred by HRSA, HHS or the U.S. Government.