MCHbest. NPM 14.1: Smoking in Pregnancy
Approach. Provide feedback to support reduction or smoking cessation behaviors.
Overview. Research indicates that using feedback incorporated into comprehensive smoking cessation interventions can enhance the reduction of smoking during pregnancy. Feedback interventions are those where a pregnant woman is provided information about the fetal health status or the results of measurement of tobacco smoking by-products to initiate or reinforce smoking cessation behaviors. This information includes ultrasound monitoring, and carbon monoxide or urine cotinine measurements, with the results shared at different points during a pregnancy.1
Evidence. Emerging. Initial research shown primarily positive results for this strategy, but further research is needed to confirm effects. The strategy of feedback has been tested more than once and results trend positive overall. Access the peer-reviewed evidence through the MCH Digital Library. (Read more about understanding evidence ratings).
Target Audience. Pregnant women.
Outcome. Smoking cessation during pregnancy. For detailed outcomes related to each study supporting this strategy, click on the peer-reviewed evidence link above and read the "Intervention Results" for each study.
Examples from the Field. Currently no states or jurisdictions use ESMs that align with the feedback intervention strategy.
Sample ESMs. Using the approach “Provide feedback to support reduction or smoking cessation behaviors,” here are sample ESMs you can use as a model for your own measures using the Results-Based Accountability framework (for suggestions on how to develop programs to support this strategy, see The Role of Title V in Adapting Strategies):
Note. ESMs become stronger as they move from measuring quantity to measuring quality (moving from Quadrants 1 and 3, respectively, to Quadrants 2 and 4) and from measuring effort to measuring effect (moving from Quadrants 1 and 2, respectively, to Quadrants 3 and 4).
1 Chamberlain C, O-Mara-Eves A, Porter J, Coleman T, Perlen SM, Thomas J, McKenzie JE. Psychosocial interventions for supporting women to stop smoking in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 2. Art No.: CD001055. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001055.pub5.