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Strengthen the Evidence for Maternal and Child Health Programs

New: MCHbest strategies database for sample ESMs

Evidence Tools
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Strategy. College Campus-Based Programs to Prevent Dating Violence and Sexual Assault

Approach. Conduct educational programs including curriculum on healthy relationships, social norms training, and improved bystander awareness and behaviors.

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Overview. Studies show that educational programs can promote healthy relationships, improve perceptions of social norms, increase bystander awareness and intervention skills, and decrease negative bystander behaviors on college campuses.1-4

Evidence. Moderate. Educational programs appear to be effective in preventing dating violence and sexual assault. Programs based on this strategy are likely to work. This strategy has been tested more than once and results trend positive overall. Access the peer-reviewed evidence through the MCH Digital Library. (Read more about understanding evidence ratings).

Target Audience. College students.

Outcome. Decreased prevalence of dating violence and sexual assault. For detailed outcomes related to each study supporting this strategy, click on the peer-reviewed evidence link above and read the "Intervention Results" for each study.

Examples from the Field. Access descriptions of ESMs that use this strategy directly or intervention components that align with this strategy. You can use these ESMs to see how other Title V agencies are addressing the NPM. You may also want to look at evidence that supports educational programs in other NPM topic areas that can be translated to this specific topic area.

Sample ESMs. Using the approach “Conduct educational programs including curriculum on healthy relationships, social norms training, and improved bystander awareness and behaviors,” here are sample ESMs you can use as a model for your own measures using the Results-Based Accountability framework:

Quadrant 1:
Measuring Quantity of Effort
("What/how much did we do?")

  • Number of college students participating in educational program.
  • Number of college campuses offering training in healthy relationships.
  • Number of college campuses offering bystander interventions.

Quadrant 2:
Measuring Quality of Effort
("How well did we do it?")

  • Percent of college students participating in educational program.
  • Percent of college students who indicated that the intervention was worthwhile.
  • Percent of college campuses offering training in healthy relationships.
  • Percent of college campuses offering bystander interventions.

Quadrant 3:
Measuring Quantity of Effect
("Is anyone better off?")

  • Number of college students participating in educational program who showed an increase in knowledge after they finished the curriculum.
  • Number of college students who reported that they understand the importance of healthy relationships, social norms training, and improved bystander awareness and behaviors.
  • Number of college students who reported decreased negative bystander behaviors.
  • Number of college students who reported improved skills for responding to incidents of dating violence and sexual assault.

Quadrant 4:
Measuring Quality of Effect
("How are they better off?")

  • Percent of college students participating in educational program who showed an increase in knowledge after they finished the curriculum.
  • Percent of college students who reported that they understand the importance of healthy relationships, social norms training, and improved bystander awareness and behaviors.
  • Percent of college students who reported decreased negative bystander behaviors.
  • Percent of college students who reported improved skills for responding to incidents of dating violence and sexual assault.

Note. ESMs become stronger as they move from measuring quantity to measuring quality (moving from Quadrants 1 and 3, respectively, to Quadrants 2 and 4) and from measuring effort to measuring effect (moving from Quadrants 1 and 2, respectively, to Quadrants 3 and 4).

Learn More. Read how to create stronger ESMs and how to measure ESM impact more meaningfully through Results-Based Accountability.


References:

1 Jouriles EN, McDonald R, Rosenfield D, Levy N, Sargent K, Caiozzo C, Grych JH. TakeCARE, a video bystander program to help prevent sexual violence on college campuses: Results of two randomized, controlled trials. Psychology of Violence 2016;6(3): 410-420.

2 Moynihan MM, Banyard V. Educating bystanders helps prevent sexual violence and reduce backlash. Family & Intimate Partner Violence Quarterly 2011a;3: 293-304.

3 Moynihan MM, Banyard VL, Arnold JS, Eckstein RP, Stapleton JG. Sisterhood may be powerful for reducing sexual and intimate partner violence: An evaluation of the Bringing in the Bystander in-person program with sorority members. Violence Against Women 2011b;17(6): 703-719.

4 Peterson K, Sharps P, Banyard V, et al. An Evaluation of Two Dating Violence Prevention Programs on a College Campus. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2018;33(23): 3630–3655. doi:10.1177/0886260516636069.

This project is supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) under grant number U02MC31613, MCH Advanced Education Policy, $3.5 M. This information or content and conclusions are those of the author and should not be construed as the official position or policy of, nor should any endorsements be inferred by HRSA, HHS or the U.S. Government.