MCHbest. NPM 7: Injury Hospitilization
Strategy. Modification of Infrastructure to Enhance Pedestrian Safety
Approach. Modify the infrastructure around schools by installing new traffic and pedestrian signals; adding exclusive pedestrian crossing times; installing speed bumps, speed boards, and high-visibility crosswalks; and enforcing new parking regulations.
Overview. Studies show that modifying the physical environment around schools to make it safer for pedestrians is the most effective way to prevent child pedestrian injuries. These modifications can include installation of new traffic and pedestrian signals, addition of exclusive pedestrian crossing times, installation of speed bumps, speed boards (radar-equipped digital signs that tell drivers how fast they are moving), and high-visibility crosswalks, and enforcement of new parking regulations.1
Evidence. Moderate/Emerging. Programs that implement modifications to the physical environment around schools appear to be effective in reducing child pedestrian injuries. Programs based on this strategy are likely to work. This strategy has been tested more than once and results trend positive overall. Access the peer-reviewed evidence through the MCH Digital Library. (Read more about understanding evidence ratings).
Target Audience. Communities and their schools.
Outcome. Reduction of school-age pedestrian injury. For detailed outcomes related to each study supporting this strategy, click on the peer-reviewed evidence link above and read the "Intervention Results" for each study.
Examples from the Field. Access descriptions of ESMs that use this strategy directly or intervention components that align with this strategy. You can use these ESMs to see how other Title V agencies are addressing the NPM. You may also want to look at evidence that supports educational programs in other NPM topic areas that can be translated to this specific topic area.
Sample ESMs. Using the approach “Modify the infrastructure around schools by installing new traffic and pedestrian signals; adding exclusive pedestrian crossing times; installing speed bumps, speed boards, and high-visibility crosswalks; and enforcing new parking regulations,” here are sample ESMs you can use as a model for your own measures using the Results-Based Accountability framework:
Note. ESMs become stronger as they move from measuring quantity to measuring quality (moving from Quadrants 1 and 3, respectively, to Quadrants 2 and 4) and from measuring effort to measuring effect (moving from Quadrants 1 and 2, respectively, to Quadrants 3 and 4).
1 DiMaggio C, Li G. Effectiveness of a safe routes to school program in preventing school-aged pedestrian injury. Pediatrics 2013;131: 290-6.