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Strengthen the Evidence for Maternal and Child Health Programs

New: MCHbest strategies database for sample ESMs

Evidence Tools
MCHbest. NPM 7: Injury Hospitilization

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Strategy. Legislation that Promotes and Enforces Teen Driver/Passenger and Bicycle Safety

Approach. Pass and enforce legislation that promotes and enforces safety for teen drivers and their passengers and for bicycle riders.

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Overview. Studies show that passing and enforcing legislation that promotes safety for teen drivers and their passengers, such as Graduated Drivers Licensing Systems, and for bicycle riders, such as helmet laws, can lead to a reduction in motor vehicle crashes and bicycle-related injuries.1 2 3 4

Evidence. Emerging. Legislations that promote and enforce safety for teen drivers and their passengers and for bicycle riders appear to be effective in reducing motor vehicle crashes and bicycle-related injuries. Strategies with this rating show promising outcomes. These strategies have been tested more than once and need further research, often with stronger designs, to confirm effects. Access the peer-reviewed evidence through the MCH Digital Library. (Read more about understanding evidence ratings).

Target Audience. State/National.

Outcome. Reduction in motor vehicle crashes among teen drivers; reduction in injuries to teen drivers and their passengers; compliance with bicycle helmet legislation; reduction in bicycle-related injuries and deaths. For detailed outcomes related to each study supporting this strategy, click on the peer-reviewed evidence link above and read the "Intervention Results" for each study.

Examples from the Field. Access descriptions of ESMs that use this strategy directly or intervention components that align with this strategy. You can use these ESMs to see how other Title V agencies are addressing the NPM. You may also want to look at evidence that supports educational programs in other NPM topic areas that can be translated to this specific topic area.

Sample ESMs. Using the approach “Pass and enforce legislation that promotes and enforces safety for teen drivers and their passengers and for bicycle riders,” here are sample ESMs you can use as a model for your own measures using the Results-Based Accountability framework:

Quadrant 1:
Measuring Quantity of Effort
("What/how much did we do?")

  • Number of teen drivers participating in Graduated Drivers Licensing Systems.
  • Number of bicycle riders covered by helmet legislation.
  • Number of jurisdictions that provide and enforce legislations to promote safety among teen drivers and bicycle riders.

Quadrant 2:
Measuring Quality of Effort
("How well did we do it?")

  • Percent of teen drivers participating in Graduated Drivers Licensing Systems.
  • Percent of bicycle riders covered by helmet legislation.
  • Percent of jurisdictions that provide and enforce legislations to promote safety among teen drivers and bicycle riders.

Quadrant 3:
Measuring Quantity of Effect
("Is anyone better off?")

  • Number of jurisdictions that reported a reduction in motor vehicle crashes among teen drivers.
  • Number of jurisdictions that reported a reduction in injuries to teen drivers and their passengers.
  • Number of bicycle riders who reported compliance with bicycle helmet legislation.
  • Number of jurisdictions that reported a reduction in bicycle-related injuries and deaths.

Quadrant 4:
Measuring Quality of Effect
("How are they better off?")

  • Percent of jurisdictions that reported a reduction in motor vehicle crashes among teen drivers.
  • Percent of jurisdictions that reported a reduction in injuries to teen drivers and their passengers.
  • Percent of bicycle riders who reported compliance with bicycle helmet legislation.
  • Percent of jurisdictions that reported a reduction in bicycle-related injuries and deaths.

Note. ESMs become stronger as they move from measuring quantity to measuring quality (moving from Quadrants 1 and 3, respectively, to Quadrants 2 and 4) and from measuring effort to measuring effect (moving from Quadrants 1 and 2, respectively, to Quadrants 3 and 4).

Learn More. Read how to create stronger ESMs and how to measure ESM impact more meaningfully through Results-Based Accountability.


References:

1 Ehsani JP, Bingham CR, Shope JT. Graduated driver licensing for new drivers: effects of three states' policies on crash rates among teenagers. Am J Prev Med 2013;45: 9-18.

2 Rogers SC, Bentley GC, Campbell B, et al. Impact of Connecticut's graduated driving licensing system on teenage motor vehicle crash rates. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2011;71: S527-30.

3 Rouse HL, Aitken ME, Lein SD, et al. Statewide policies for safer teen driving: an evaluation of the impact of graduated driver licensing in Arkansas. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2013;75: S281-14.

4 Wesson DE, Stephens D, Lam K, Parsons D, Spence L, Parkin PC. Trends in pediatric and adult bicycling deaths before and after passage of a bicycle helmet law. Pediatrics 2008;122: 605–10.

This project is supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) under grant number U02MC31613, MCH Advanced Education Policy, $3.5 M. This information or content and conclusions are those of the author and should not be construed as the official position or policy of, nor should any endorsements be inferred by HRSA, HHS or the U.S. Government.