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Strengthen the Evidence for Maternal and Child Health Programs

New: MCHbest strategies database for sample ESMs

Evidence Tools
MCHbest. NPM 7: Injury Hospitilization

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Strategy. School-Based Educational Programs to Promote Safety on the Road

Approach. Conduct educational programs with curricula that focus on bicycle safety and on safe driving skills.

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Overview. Studies show that conducting school-based educational programs that focus on bicycle safety, including bicycle laws, maintenance, and body health, can lead to a reduction in bicycle-related injuries. Educational programs that stress safe driving skills and present examples of real-life traumas are effective in increasing knowledge of safe driving skills, which can lead to a reduction in motor vehicle accidents among teen drivers. 1-4

Evidence. Emerging. School-based educational programs that focus on bicycle safety and on safe driving skills appear to be effective in reducing bicycle-related injuries and motor vehicle accidents. Strategies with this rating show promising outcomes. These strategies have been tested more than once and need further research, often with stronger designs, to confirm effects. Access the peer-reviewed evidence through the MCH Digital Library. (Read more about understanding evidence ratings).

Target Audience. Elementary, middle school, and high school students.

Outcome. Reduction in bicycle-related injuries; increase in bicycle safety knowledge; increase in knowledge of safe driving skills. For detailed outcomes related to each study supporting this strategy, click on the peer-reviewed evidence link above and read the "Intervention Results" for each study.

Examples from the Field. Access descriptions of ESMs that use this strategy directly or intervention components that align with this strategy. You can use these ESMs to see how other Title V agencies are addressing the NPM. You may also want to look at evidence that supports educational programs in other NPM topic areas that can be translated to this specific topic area.

Sample ESMs.Using the approach “Conduct educational programs with curricula that focus on bicycle safety and on safe driving skills,” here are sample ESMs you can use as a model for your own measures using the Results-Based Accountability framework:

Quadrant 1:
Measuring Quantity of Effort
("What/how much did we do?")

  • Number of students participating in educational program on bicycle safety.
  • Number of students participating in educational program on safe driving skills.
  • Number of schools that provide educational programs that promote bicycle safety.
  • Number of schools that provide educational programs that promote safe driving skills.

Quadrant 2:
Measuring Quality of Effort
("How well did we do it?")

  • Percent of students participating in educational program on bicycle safety.
  • Percent of students participating in educational program on safe driving skills.
  • Percent of schools that provide educational programs that promote bicycle safety.Percent of schools that provide educational programs that promote safe driving skills.

Quadrant 3:
Measuring Quantity of Effect
("Is anyone better off?")

  • Number of students who showed an increase in knowledge after they finished the bicycle safety curriculum.
  • Number of students who showed an increase in knowledge after they finished the safe driving skills curriculum.
  • Number of students who reported a reduction in bicycle-related injuries.
  • Number of students who reported a reduction in motor vehicle related injuries.

Quadrant 4:
Measuring Quality of Effect
("How are they better off?")

  • Percent of students who showed an increase in knowledge after they finished the bicycle safety curriculum.
  • Percent of students who showed an increase in knowledge after they finished the safe driving skills curriculum.
  • Percent of students who reported a reduction in bicycle-related injuries.
  • Percent of students who reported a reduction in motor vehicle related injuries.

Note. ESMs become stronger as they move from measuring quantity to measuring quality (moving from Quadrants 1 and 3, respectively, to Quadrants 2 and 4) and from measuring effort to measuring effect (moving from Quadrants 1 and 2, respectively, to Quadrants 3 and 4).

Learn More. Read how to create stronger ESMs and how to measure ESM impact more meaningfully through Results-Based Accountability.


References:

1 Allabaugh CT, Maltz S, Carlson G, Watcharotone, K. Education and prevention for teens: using trauma nurses Talk Tough presentation with pretest and posttest evaluation of knowledge and behavior changes. Journal of Trauma Nursing 2008;15(3): 102-111.

2 Banfield JM, Gomez M, Kiss A, et al. Effectiveness of the PARTY (prevent alcohol and risk-related trauma in youth) program preventing traumatic injuries: a 10-year analysis. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2011;70: 732-5.

3 Groesz LM. A conceptual evaluation of a school-based utilitarian exercise model [Dissertation]. Austin, Texas, USA: The University of Texas at Austin, 2009.

4 McLaughlin KA, Glang A. The effectiveness of a bicycle safety program for improving safety-related knowledge and behavior in young elementary students. J Pediatr Psychol 2010;35: 343–53.

This project is supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) under grant number U02MC31613, MCH Advanced Education Policy, $3.5 M. This information or content and conclusions are those of the author and should not be construed as the official position or policy of, nor should any endorsements be inferred by HRSA, HHS or the U.S. Government.