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Strengthening the evidence base for maternal and child health programs

New: MCH Best strategies database for sample ESMs

Evidence Tools
MCH Best. NPM 9: Bullying

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group of young school children pointing and laughing at a girl covering her faceAdult-Led Counseling, Mentoring, and Support

MCH Strategy. Increase youth participation in evidence-based mentoring, counseling, or adult supervision programs.

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Overview. Research studies have found a correlation between relational victimization/bullying and increased psychosocial distress, delinquent behaviors, and lower academic achievement.1 While evidence shows that classroom interventions to combat bullying have some effectiveness, they tend to be most effective when implemented in conjunction with other bullying prevention programs.

Evidence. Emerging Evidence. Research has indicated that teaching children and adolescents a moral approach to deal with bullies in the classroom and providing support and education based on emotions and moral values may help to prevent bullying and aggression in school.2 Access the peer-reviewed evidence through the MCH Digital Library. Targeted interventions (i.e., those tailored to youth at risk for bullying) alone do not appear to be effective in reducing bullying. Thus it is critical to combine youth-targeted interventions with universal programs (e.g., classroom or school-based). Likewise, combining classroom and school level interventions appears to be more effective than implementing either alone. Thus, multi-tiered approaches have been shown to be the most effective approach in addressing bullying. (Read more about understanding evidence ratings).

Target Audience. Targeted: Youth (no other intervention). Multi-tiered approaches including both targeted and universal strategies may offer added benefits. See above for added benefits of combining with other interventions.

Outcome. Reduced children and adolescents who report being bullied. For detailed outcomes related to each study supporting this strategy, click on the peer-reviewed evidence link above and read the "Intervention Results" for each study.

Examples from the Field. There are currently 2 ESMs across all states/jurisdictions that use this strategy directly or intervention components that align with this strategy. Access descriptions of these ESMs through the MCH Digital Library. You can use these ESMs to see how other Title V agencies are addressing the NPM.

Sample ESMs. Using the strategy “Increase youth participation in evidence based mentoring, counseling, or adult supervision programs,” here are sample ESMs you can use as a model for your own measures using the Results-Based Accountability framework (for suggestions on how to develop programs to support this strategy, see The Role of Title V in Adapting Strategies):

QUADRANT 1:
Measuring Quantity of Effort
("What/how much did we do?")

  • Number of youth participating in evidence-based mentoring, counseling, or adult supervision programs.

QUADRANT 2:
Measuring Quality of Effort
("How well did we do it?")

  • Percent of youth participating in evidence based mentoring, counseling, or adult supervision programs.

QUADRANT 3:
Measuring Quantity of Effect
("Is anyone better off?")

  • Number of youth who indicated in a follow-up survey that they implemented tools gained from the evidence-based mentoring, counseling or adult supervision programs.

QUADRANT 4:
Measuring Quality of Effect
("How are they better off?")

  • Percent of youth who indicated in a follow-up survey that they implemented tools gained from the evidence-based mentoring, counseling or adult supervision programs.

Note. ESMs become stronger as they move from measuring quantity to measuring quality (moving from Quadrants 1 and 3, respectively, to Quadrants 2 and 4) and from measuring effort to measuring effect (moving from Quadrants 1 and 2, respectively, to Quadrants 3 and 4).

Learn More. Read how to create stronger ESMs and how to measure ESM impact more meaningfully through Results-Based Accountability.


References:

1 Splett, J. D., Maras, M. A., & Brooks, C. M. (2015). GIRLSS: A randomized, pilot study of a multisystemic, school-based intervention to reduce relational aggression. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(8), 2250-2261.

2 Menesini, E., Sanchez, V., Fonzi, A., Ortega, R., Costabile, A., & Lo Feudo, G. (2003). Moral emotions and bullying: A cross‐national comparison of differences between bullies, victims and outsiders. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression, 29(6), 515-530.

This project is supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) under grant number U02MC31613, MCH Advanced Education Policy, $3.5 M. This information or content and conclusions are those of the author and should not be construed as the official position or policy of, nor should any endorsements be inferred by HRSA, HHS or the U.S. Government.